# POINTER EXPRESSIONS/ARITHMETIC

## 1.1.Pointer Expressions

Pointers can be used in most valid C++ expressions. However, some special rules apply. Remember also that you may need to surround some parts of a pointer expression with parentheses in order to ensure that the outcome is what you desire.

## 1.2.Pointer Arithmetic

There are only four arithmetic operators that can be used on pointers: ++, – –, +, and –. To understand what occurs in pointer arithmetic, let p1 be an integer pointer with a current value of 2,000 (that is, it contains the address 2,000). Assuming 32-bit integers, after the expression
 p1++;
the contents of p1 will be 2,004, not 2,001! Each time p1 is incremented, it will point to the next integer. The same is true of decrements. For example,
 p1--;
will cause p1 to have the value 1,996, assuming that it previously was 2,000. Here is why: Each time that a pointer is incremented, it will point to the memory location of the next element of its base type. Each time it is decremented, it will point to the location of the previous element of its base type. In the case of character pointers, an increment or decrement will appear as "normal" arithmetic because characters are one byte long. However, every other type of pointer will increase or decrease by the length of its base type. You are not limited to only increment and decrement operations. You can also add or subtract integers to or from pointers. The expression
 p1 = p1 + 9;
makes p1 point to the ninth element of p1’s base type, beyond the one to which it is currently pointing. While you cannot add pointers, you can subtract one pointer from another (provided they are both of the same base type). The remainder will be the number of elements of the base type that separate the two pointers. Other than addition and subtraction of a pointer and an integer, or the subtraction of two pointers, no other arithmetic operations can be performed on pointers. For example, you cannot add or subtract float or double values to or from pointers. To see the effects of pointer arithmetic, execute the next short program. It prints the actual physical addresses to which an integer pointer (i) and a floating-point pointer (f) are pointing. Observe how each changes, relative to its base type, each time the loop is repeated. (For most 32-bit compilers, i will increase by 4s and f will increase by 8s.) Notice that when using a pointer in a cout statement, its address is automatically displayed in the addressing format applicable to the current processor and environment.
 // POINTER4.cpp : Defines the entry point for the console application. // #include "stdafx.h" #include using namespace std; int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[]) {             int *i, j;             double *f, g;             int x;             i = j;             f = g;             for(x=0; x<10; x++)             cout << i+x << ' ' << f+x << "\n";             return 0; }
Here is sample output. (The addresses you see when you run the program may differ from those shown here, but the net effect will be the same.)

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